Java-Gaming.org Hi !
Featured games (83)
games approved by the League of Dukes
Games in Showcase (526)
Games in Android Showcase (127)
games submitted by our members
Games in WIP (593)
games currently in development
News: Read the Java Gaming Resources, or peek at the official Java tutorials
 
    Home     Help   Search   Login   Register   
Pages: [1]
  ignore  |  Print  
  Noise (bandpassed white)  (Read 37408 times)
0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.
Offline Wiki Duke

?





« Posted 2012-08-10 08:42:04 »

Note: you are watching revision 12 of this wiki entry. ( view plain diff )
Stub for Perlin-like and value noise.

Introduction


This family of noise functions are incredibly useful tools for creating and modifing content.  According to CG industry lore it was informally observed in the 90s that "90% of 3D rendering time is spent in shading, and 90% of that time is spent computing Perlin (gradient) noise".  Regardless of the truth of this observation, this family of noise functions are certainly one of the most important techiques not only in proceeduarally generated content but in CG as a whole.  Increases in CPU speed and the relatively new addition of GPU computation allow for runtime evaluation of the cheaper of these methods in realtime graphics.

Attempting to give any detailed descriptions of how to "use" noise functions to create or modify content is well beyond the scope of any short description.  The goal here is to outline some basics of core generation techniques and to provide links to more detailed information in specific areas of interest.

For the local discussion, we'll assume that noise accepts floating point input for a sample coordinate and returns a floating point value (usually either on [0,1] or [-1,1]).  It will provide some sketches of 2D implementations to (hopefully) aid in understanding.

Noise functions are evaluated in some number of dimensions (typcially 1,2,3 or 4).  This is simply to say that you provide some input coordinate and noise returns the corresponding fixed value at that position, just like any other multi-dimensional function.  From a signal processing perspective this family can be described as an attempt to approximate band-pass filtering of white noise.  Perhaps a simplier description would be that they are attempts at coherent pseudo-random number generators (PRNG).  

Regular PRNGs attempt to create a fixed sequence (from some initial state data...frequently termed the 'seed') of values that appear to be statistically independent.  White noise can be created from a PRNG as in the following sketch (in 2D):

1  
2  
3  
4  
5  
6  
float eval(float x, float y)
{
  long seed = mix(x,y);         // map the input coordate to a seed value
  prng.setSeed(seed);           // set the PRNGs seed to the mix
  return prng.nextFloat();      // return the result
}


Unfortuately raw white noise is of very little use.  If you were to create a 2D texture from white noise, regardless of how you walk through the 'noise' function the result would be virtually identical.  The result would be like what you'd see on an old broadcast TV tuned to a channel without a signal.  What's really needed to be useful are random values that are coherent:  which roughly says that sample points far apart are like PRNG values, appear to be independent, and the set of all sample points close to one another vary continously (or smoothly in less formal speak).

Value noise


Value noise is the one of the original attempts at this style of noise generation.  It is very often miscalled Perlin noise.  Evaluation is very cheap, but it burden with serious defects and is very poor at band-pass filtering.  Quality can be improved, but even the most basic improvements make it more expensive than gradient noise.  So a general guidline for using this techique is to only use a very cheap version and only when some exisiting content can be minorly modified by one or two evaluations.

Value noise is computed by forming a regular grid, computing random values at each vertex and blending the values to produce a result.  Sketch in 2D:

1  
2  
3  
4  
5  
6  
7  
8  
9  
10  
11  
12  
13  
14  
15  
16  
17  
18  
19  
20  
float eval(float x, float y)
{
  // lower left hand corner of cell containing (x,y)
  int ix   = (int)Math.floor(x);
  int iy   = (int)Math.floor(y);

  // offset into 'cell' of (x,y). dx & dy are on [0,1)
  float dx = x - ix;
  float dy = y - iy;

  // generate a random value for each vertex of the cell
  // based on its integer coordinate.
  float r00 = mix(ix,   iy);
  float r10 = mix(ix+1, iy);
  float r01 = mix(ix,   iy+1);
  float r11 = mix(ix+1, iy+1);

  // use some interolation techinque to get the sample value.
  return blend(r00,r10,r01,r11,dx,dy);
}


So to compute value noise in 'n' dimensions, the work required is related to n2 (1D = line segement or 2 vertices, 2D = square or 4 verts, 3D = cube and 8, etc).  The problems with value noise stem from the fact that at each evaluation point, the result only depends on blended data interior the cell that its within.  This results in sample points close to one another, but in different cells, to not vary continously.  This results in very obvious defects along cell boundaries.  Early attempts to fix this major problem included visting further away cells and using more complex blending functions...which drastically increase complexity.  The introduction of gradient noise made these solutions obsolete.


References

Perlin gradient noise


Created in 1983 by Ken Perlin, this Oscar award winning technqiue is a clever way to minorly modify value noise to drastically improve the output quality.  Usually when one is (correctly) calling a noise function "Perlin" noise, this is the techique being discussed.  The clever addition is to choose a vector associated with each vertex (gradient vector).  Then to calculate the vector from the vertex to the sample point.  The dot product between these two vectors gives the influence of random value on the output of the sample point. BLAH, BLAH

Note that there have been numerious improvements made to gradient noise over the years, so some references may be refering to older versions. And, of course, authors may make minor tweaks (for better or worse) to their specific implemenation.

Variants of note:
  • Originally the vectors were randomly generated unit vectors.  Perlin later noted that using a small set of vectors (all the permutations of vector components of zero or one) drastically reduced computational cost.
  • Two ease functions - note difference

References Yeah...add tons of stuff here

Perlin simplex noise


In 2002 Ken Perlin...blah blah

References


Others


There are many other noise functions, must of which are too complex to be evaluated at runtime, but may have game usage for pre-generated content. BLAH BLAH:

  • Anisotropic noise
  • Gabor noise: not the same family, but can generate similar results.
  • Sparse convolution noise
  • Wavelet noise

References
This wiki entry has had 21 revisions with contributions from 2 members. (more info)
Offline Roquen
« Reply #1 - Posted 2012-08-10 18:17:29 »

OK.  Does my first pass at the theory and why I've put it there make sense to someone that knows zero about signal processing?
Offline erikd

JGO Ninja


Medals: 16
Projects: 4
Exp: 14 years


Maximumisness


« Reply #2 - Posted 2012-08-14 18:36:00 »

I'm getting the general gist of it, but I have to admit I know a thing or 2 about signal processing.
But my general feeling about the article is that it kind of covers too many things at once at a purely theoretical level without being very practical.
Perhaps you could try targeting it to a developer with a specific need, for example procedural texture generation, hight-map generation, or some other procedural content generation. And then explaining why a certain noise algorithm would make sense in that particular case.

I'm trying to deride your article (in fact I'm very interested in the subject), but I feel it covers too many areas to be useful in just one wiki article.

Games published by our own members! Check 'em out!
Legends of Yore - The Casual Retro Roguelike
Offline Best Username Ever

Junior Devvie





« Reply #3 - Posted 2012-08-18 19:37:14 »

I think people that don't already know the subject will be lost. What's the purpose of bandpass filtering? Isn't the goal of certain noise algorithms to achieve a subjective aesthetic effect?
Offline pjt33
« Reply #4 - Posted 2012-08-18 22:59:13 »

To someone who knows a bit about signal processing, it raises a number of questions. E.g. did you intend your description of decomposition in terms of basis functions to be broad enough to include Taylor expansion? Would it be worth defining "signal"? Does it make sense to talk about Fourier analysis of non-periodic functions in an introduction to noise?

Someone who doesn't know anything about signal processing is guaranteed to not know what you mean by the frequency domain. They may also pick up on the Gibbs phenomenon in the pictures about creating a square wave, and wonder whether it contradicts what you're saying. And they won't have a clue what "band-pass filtered" means.
Offline Roquen
« Reply #5 - Posted 2012-08-19 13:10:17 »

Well talking in a hand waving kinda way about signal processing is tricky.  I guess the more important question is if it's even worth talking about at all? 
Offline keldon85

Senior Devvie


Medals: 1



« Reply #6 - Posted 2012-08-19 15:46:27 »

I've seen some sensational shaders making use of perlin noise to make some really convincing wood textures, and for scene generation it helps to have a little taste for different ways of producing controlled modulation.

Though it would help if we could arrange the structure a little to be more helpful in some way because this is a very useful topic to be covered.

Offline philfrei
« Reply #7 - Posted 2012-08-19 21:15:48 »

I'm trying to get better acquainted with using noise in textures right now, grappling with it conceptually, having just had my first working experience with calling Simplex noise to assemble a cloudy texture.

I'm not at all clear that getting into Fourier analysis is helpful. I can see where using 'harmonics' can make the coding neater, and it seems to work well with the mathematics of fractals, but it doesn't seem to be entirely necessary. One can add noise that has energy at frequencies that are unrelated to the base frequency with no problem. Visual textures are not like sound waves, where one deals with the prevalence nodes and anti-nodes and standing waves in the "real world," and the ear and hearing portions of the brain has evolved to make use of data in this form.

So, is it simpler, instead, to describe noise as having components that are at various periods, and not worry about the Fourier analysis, at least, at the "beginner" level? Or are techniques to analyze textures to determine their strongest component frequencies in use and an important part of creating textures?

I'm thinking, for a dimension, given a length L and a value "n" along that length, a "basic" unit of noise might be of length n/L. Since n can go from 0 to L, the result of this fraction is 0 to 1. One can multiply this value by different factors to get different degrees of scaling. Obtaining noise with (n/L * K) will be K times more detailed than noise at n/L.

But we are free to make K whatever we want. K can be a float or double. It doesn't have to be an integer or a progression of integers.

(We might also talk about how to "relate" the periodicity of one type of noise to another via a scaling factor that is applied to the n/L (O to 1) results of the different noise generation techniques? Maybe this is already done?)

Then, there is total latitude with what we do with the output noise values (which range from -1 to 1), whether to sum them or lerp them, or use them in trig functions. It seems wide open, as long as the function results in a legal Color value for a pixel.

(It occurs to me, one could also talk about a more concrete value the periodic nature of noise by finding a number of pixels that corresponds to an average of one swing in the random number. But I think I am getting into fuzzy thinking, as I don't know how to describe a "period" of randomness, and the way in which we relate the numbers to pixels on the screen is so fluid.)

As I said, I'm a beginner with using noise, and am happy to be corrected on any point.

"It's after the end of the world! Don't you know that yet?"
Offline Roquen
« Reply #8 - Posted 2012-08-20 05:51:21 »

Doing octaves is exactly construction that's obvious in the frequency domain and one reason why I thought this might be useful.  I'm thinking about a complete different track that describes as coherent pseudo-random numbers and walking though the historic progression of how they work.  Detailed usage is a ton of work and was thinking that provide a bunch of links would be reasonable for a first pass.  (plus I'm too lazy to make pictures)
Offline keldon85

Senior Devvie


Medals: 1



« Reply #9 - Posted 2012-08-20 22:20:55 »

Hmm, when generating textures like clouds and terrain it helps to know a little about the effects of noise colouring, distortion and how it can be fun to mess around with to produce different results.

And thinking back to clouds, isn't the very reason you see clouds down to the low frequency bias, with the overtones creating the fuzziness.

I think it would help to show the differences visually though, or even better yet, produce an app to demonstrate it. I learned a lot just by tweaking my 2d noise generator. This could be the difference between generating really mundane levels or elaborate worlds that feel like they've been really well designed  IMO.

I agree with what philfrel said about having components at various periods, and experimentation is key. When I was at uni I remember toying around rending series upon series of sine waves, some directional, some radial, until (*I swear*) it looked like plasma. Of course that wasn't the memorable part, the memorable part was when I made a few small modifications and ... err ... it stopped looking awesome and had to investigate and figure out what on Earth was going on Cheesy Still don't know how I did it Sad

In terms of good, I think it's key to remember that these random values can be feeding into game behaviour. This could be what gives flavour to your map generation algorithm. The more applicable and relative to games the examples are the more that people will digest and be able to use it.

Games published by our own members! Check 'em out!
Legends of Yore - The Casual Retro Roguelike
Offline Roquen
« Reply #10 - Posted 2012-08-21 09:52:06 »

No doubt experience is all important for creating effects and the theory is of marginal use.  My thinking is more geared toward choosing what set of base generators to use.  Precomputed effects is easy:  improved gradient if you want to quickly bang stuff out based on other peoples work (as pretty much everything is written to gradient noise) and/or simplex noise.  The 'better' noise methods are too expensive for fast turn around to be useful IHMO.  The trickier part is for runtime generated stuff.
Offline Roquen
« Reply #11 - Posted 2012-08-23 13:27:44 »

OK. I made a first pass at a second pass.  Any better or still wankery?
Offline philfrei
« Reply #12 - Posted 2012-08-23 17:48:52 »

Many improvements!  Smiley

"It's after the end of the world! Don't you know that yet?"
Offline Roquen
« Reply #13 - Posted 2012-09-27 14:59:16 »

Fixed some typo's.  Completed "brief" and added a sketch for gradient noise.
Offline philfrei
« Reply #14 - Posted 2012-09-27 18:40:00 »

Would love to get some more feedback as to what can be done to make the visualizer I started [http://www.java-gaming.org/topics/simplex-noise-experiments-towards-procedural-generation/27163/view.html] something you'd consider adding as a link on the main page of this wiki.

P.S., I'm seriously looking at "open sourcing" the project on GitHub, making the emphasis more on helping devs write and test a wider range of textures. (Just figured out "perspective" but haven't integrated it yet.)

"It's after the end of the world! Don't you know that yet?"
Offline matheus23

JGO Kernel


Medals: 113
Projects: 3


You think about my Avatar right now!


« Reply #15 - Posted 2012-09-27 18:44:52 »

P.S., I'm seriously looking at "open sourcing" the project on GitHub, making the emphasis more on helping devs write and test a wider range of textures. (Just figured out "perspective" but haven't integrated it yet.)
This is almost always a very good idea! Do this, (I'd be intrested too Smiley but mind licensing!)  Grin

See my:
    My development Blog:     | Or look at my RPG | Or simply my coding
http://matheusdev.tumblr.comRuins of Revenge  |      On Github
Offline Roquen
« Reply #16 - Posted 2012-09-27 19:52:34 »

Hey, it's a wiki...do it yourself!  Seriously I was thinking this is getting about as long as is reasonable and that talking about basics of using noise should be on another page and have code-snippets like your tutorial.  There no reason why your tool shouldn't be linked from both.
Offline philfrei
« Reply #17 - Posted 2012-09-27 21:38:53 »

Doh! Looky there. A "modify" button on the first post.

"It's after the end of the world! Don't you know that yet?"
Offline Roquen
« Reply #18 - Posted 2013-04-05 15:36:37 »

Tossed together a quick WebGL demo (link in overview).
Offline matheus23

JGO Kernel


Medals: 113
Projects: 3


You think about my Avatar right now!


« Reply #19 - Posted 2013-12-27 11:55:10 »

Quote
So to compute value noise in 'n' dimensions, the work required is related to n2 (1D = line segment or 2 vertices, 2D = square or 4 verts, 3D = cube and 8, etc)

Shouldn't it be 2^n? I'm not sure that's why I'm asking...

1  
2  
3  
4  
5  
1D = 2^1 = 2 vertices
2D = 2^2 = 4 vertices
3D = 2^3 = 8 vertices
4D = 2^4 = 16 vertices
...


Yeah. Pretty sure now.

See my:
    My development Blog:     | Or look at my RPG | Or simply my coding
http://matheusdev.tumblr.comRuins of Revenge  |      On Github
Offline Roquen
« Reply #20 - Posted 2013-12-27 12:52:04 »

I'm seeing 2^n in what you've quoted...check your browser and/or the source that you're seeing.  I see that it's wrong in the simplex noise part though (reading n^2)...sigh.
Offline matheus23

JGO Kernel


Medals: 113
Projects: 3


You think about my Avatar right now!


« Reply #21 - Posted 2013-12-27 12:52:36 »

I'm seeing 2^n in what you've quoted...check your browser and/or the source that you're seeing.  I see that it's wrong in the simplex noise part though (reading n^2)...sigh.

Yeah, I've modified it in the first part already ^^

See my:
    My development Blog:     | Or look at my RPG | Or simply my coding
http://matheusdev.tumblr.comRuins of Revenge  |      On Github
Offline Roquen
« Reply #22 - Posted 2013-12-27 13:59:25 »

Wait!  You...fixed....it...and Wait!  You corrected the second error as well?  Someone understands the concept of a wiki!  I'm so happy I could cry.  (nice catch).
Offline matheus23

JGO Kernel


Medals: 113
Projects: 3


You think about my Avatar right now!


« Reply #23 - Posted 2013-12-27 14:09:25 »

Wait!  You...fixed....it...and Wait!  You corrected the second error as well?  Someone understands the concept of a wiki!  I'm so happy I could cry.  (nice catch).

Glad to make someone happy Grin

See my:
    My development Blog:     | Or look at my RPG | Or simply my coding
http://matheusdev.tumblr.comRuins of Revenge  |      On Github
Pages: [1]
  ignore  |  Print  
 
 

 

Add your game by posting it in the WIP section,
or publish it in Showcase.

The first screenshot will be displayed as a thumbnail.

toopeicgaming1999 (72 views)
2014-11-26 15:22:04

toopeicgaming1999 (62 views)
2014-11-26 15:20:36

toopeicgaming1999 (15 views)
2014-11-26 15:20:08

SHC (29 views)
2014-11-25 12:00:59

SHC (27 views)
2014-11-25 11:53:45

Norakomi (32 views)
2014-11-25 11:26:43

Gibbo3771 (27 views)
2014-11-24 19:59:16

trollwarrior1 (40 views)
2014-11-22 12:13:56

xFryIx (78 views)
2014-11-13 12:34:49

digdugdiggy (56 views)
2014-11-12 21:11:50
Understanding relations between setOrigin, setScale and setPosition in libGdx
by mbabuskov
2014-10-09 22:35:00

Definite guide to supporting multiple device resolutions on Android (2014)
by mbabuskov
2014-10-02 22:36:02

List of Learning Resources
by Longor1996
2014-08-16 10:40:00

List of Learning Resources
by SilverTiger
2014-08-05 19:33:27

Resources for WIP games
by CogWheelz
2014-08-01 16:20:17

Resources for WIP games
by CogWheelz
2014-08-01 16:19:50

List of Learning Resources
by SilverTiger
2014-07-31 16:29:50

List of Learning Resources
by SilverTiger
2014-07-31 16:26:06
java-gaming.org is not responsible for the content posted by its members, including references to external websites, and other references that may or may not have a relation with our primarily gaming and game production oriented community. inquiries and complaints can be sent via email to the info‑account of the company managing the website of java‑gaming.org
Powered by MySQL Powered by PHP Powered by SMF 1.1.18 | SMF © 2013, Simple Machines | Managed by Enhanced Four Valid XHTML 1.0! Valid CSS!