1.) How exactly should I go about sizing objects, the main window, etc. I want to work off of a system where you can change the resolution, which is how most games do it, based on a specific set of rations. I also want to know the perfect size for sprites. I've been using 16x16, 32x32, and 64x64. However, 16 is to small, 32 is.. mehh.. and 64 is just kinda to big for small windows. (PS. Whenever resolution is changed, sprites are scaled larger, as well as text, any pretty much anything that is on screen. Basically magnifying the screen).
Honestly, there is really no set value for these things. I mean, I've come to prefer windowed applications rather than full-screen, but it totally depends on the game you are making. My resolution of choice of late has been 800 x 600. I have no real reason for it, but I also leave the ability to re-size. I mean, a good resolution is something the player can see after all. Seriously, there is a difference programming for a mobile phone and a high end-PC. Resolution isn't a set value.
The same goes for sprites, the bigger they are, the more detail. So I scale small ( 8 x 8 ) if I want the game to look retro, and large (128+ x 128+) if I want some good detail. Again it depends on the game and the style of how you want it to look. Basic rule, bigger sprites... more detail. If you are just starting and you don't have an artist... try to go smaller.
2.) What exactly is 'clean code'?
is about recognizing that your audience isn’t just a computer, it’s real-live humans! Clean code is a reader-focused development style that produces software that’s easy to write, read and maintain. "
3.) What steps should I take within the game? What order? (Planning, Sprite/Character Design, Programming, Mechanics, Story, etc).
Planning - Mechanics & Sprite/Character Design & Story
Programming (Alpha - Beta) - Mechanics & Sprite/Character Design
Polish - Sprite/Character Design & Story & Programming
4.) How exactly do particles and little text effects work? (For example, taking damage and a little "-1" pops up then fades away. Or picking up ammo and seeing "+20" pop up then fade away.)
Literally, fading effects
are done with a combination of the timer
and setting transparency
. Usually, you just set the transparency to a value and alter it based on the timer.
5.) How should I tackle handling entities? I've been using a handler that cycles through a LinkedList of entities and ticks/renders the selected (or initialized) entity, however this causes many problems for me..
Well, you have to use some sort of array based format, like a factory, and Arraylist, or a basic array. The fact is you have a lot of items and they all have to be organized in some way. There is a lot of ways to accomplish this, but the best is just to look at the various tutorials that exist and emulate their systems for handling entities. It truly is game specific. I've gotten away with a simple int sometimes, and other times I needed a tree of classes. It totally depends.
Also, how easily could I achieve basic lighting?
Basic lighting can sort of be achieved by drawing a lightened texture over the area using polygons, but I'd just suggest picking up LibGDX
and learning about LWJGL
if you want some really good lighting effects.