Hey! I'm glad I decided to look at this post again, i wasn't expecting more comments! xD This site never emails me
Alright! So finally what I ended up doing is bugging a family friend who also happens to be a mathematics professor at a local university to help me. He did the equations while I translated it into code, and it turned out to be relatively simple once you understand it.
If ball B has a speedX and a speedY, and ball B also has these, then when a collision occurs (they're circles, use the distance formula) you simple set A's speed variables equal to B's speeds, and then set B's speeds to what A's were before you changed them. This is assuming identical mass, if one is twice as heavy you just have to use multiplication.
A.mass = 1;
B.mass = 2;
A.speed = B.speed*2;
B.speed = A.PreviousSpeed/2;
This is a mathematically perfect algorithm assuming no friction, spin, damping, speed averaging, or invading aliens. It's more accurate for atoms than superBalls cause more stuff gets in the way when things are bigger. Hope that comes in handy!